This book examines a range of substantive EU environmental law and policy, and considers far-reaching endeavours to improve environmental regulation. Contemporary environmental regulation is facing significant challenges. These challenges are varied, and include the search for economic efficiency, popular mistrust of experts and frequent observation of poor practical results. This development, and some of the serious tensions that arise in the legal conditions for decision-making, form a major theme of this book. At EU level, criticisms of regulatory activity are compounded by the significant questions that surround the legitimacy of certain EU institutions and processes. One striking feature of contemporary EU environmental law is its wholehearted preoccupation with the structure of decision-making.